The importance of protocols and standards

TCP/IP controls how information is successfully transferred between computers on the Internet. When web pages are requested and then sent over the Internet, another protocol used in addition to TCP/IP is the http protocol, or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. When files are transferred over the Internet, the FTP protocol, or File Transfer Protocol, is used. Sending email can be done using the SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

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However there are a couple of common conventions used by applications that will be described here. This is an introduction to the Internet networking protocols (TCP/IP). It includes a summary of the facilities available and brief descriptions of the major protocols in the family. You agree that, as between us and you, we retain title to and ownership of all the intellectual property rights in the Product. You can find details of the license by us to you of the intellectual property rights in any software in the Product by looking in the EULA and the Terms of Use, if applicable. Receiving Data – The datagram is first received by the Network Access Layer.

  • For example, a printer needs to send messages to a computer telling it that it has run out of paper or that it is ready to print while a computer needs to send the data it wants to print to the printer.
  • Although people are still likely to work with one specific computer, that computer will call on other systems on the net for specialized services.
  • So we want to be able to use the largest packet size possible.
  • Your TCP might allocate port numbers 1000, 1001, and 1002 to these transfers.

The Department will endeavour to keep such delays to a minimum. Please note that any marks released are subject to ratification by the Board of Examiners and Senate. Meetings at the start/end of each term provide you with an opportunity to discuss and reflect with your supervisor on your overall performance to date. ‘Feedback’ at a university level can be understood as any part of the learning process which is designed to guide your progress through your degree programme.

11 Data Passing Through Layers

ICMP is similar to UDP, in that it handles messages that fit in one datagram. It doesn’t even have port numbers in its header.Since all ICMP messages are interpreted by the network software itself, no port numbers are needed to say where a ICMP message is supposed to go. Again, the header contains some additional fields that have not been discussed.