List Of Programming Languages programing language

A language is typed if the specification of every operation defines types of data to which the operation is applicable. For example, the data represented by “this text between the quotes” is a string, and in many programming languages dividing a number by a string has no meaning and will not be executed. Many languages allow a function called an exception handler to handle this exception and, for example, always return “-1” as the result. In 1978, ML built a polymorphic type system on top of Lisp, pioneering statically typed functional programming languages. John C. Reynolds emphasizes that formal specification languages are just as much programming languages as are the languages intended for execution.

  • The practical necessity that a programming language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle.
  • A language’s designers and users must construct a number of artifacts that govern and enable the practice of programming.
  • Ken Iverson and Roger Hui developed this programming language that requires only the basic ASCII character set.
  • A list is a matched pair of parentheses, with zero or more expressions inside it.
  • Like we have different languages to communicate with each other, likewise, we have different languages like C, C++, C#, Java, python, etc to communicate with the computers.

Natural language programming has been proposed as a way to eliminate the need for a specialized language for programming. However, this goal remains distant and its benefits are open to debate. Edsger W. Dijkstra took the position that the use of a formal language is essential to prevent the introduction of meaningless constructs, and dismissed natural language programming as “foolish”.

Scripting Languages

While all of the programming languages on this list changed the world of computers, perhaps none were more revolutionary than BASIC (Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). C is another important programming language that was widely used for used and influenced several later programming languages. A successor to the programming language B, C was originally developed at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie between 1972 and 1973 for the new-at-the-time Unix operating system. Over the next few years, C was used in many projects within the Bell System and also by other research-oriented industrial, academic, and government organizations. During the 1980s, C rose in popularity and went on to become one of the most widely used programming languages. SQL , was developed in the early 1970s at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce.

What’s more, the median annual pay for a software programmer is about $106,000, which nearly three times the median pay for all U.S. workers. A language’s designers and users must construct a number of artifacts that govern and enable the practice of programming. The most important of these artifacts are the language specification and implementation. In practice, while few languages are considered typed from the type theory , most modern languages offer a degree of typing. Many production languages provide means to bypass or subvert the type system, trading type-safety for finer control over the program’s execution . These abstractions make the C code compilable without modification on any architecture for which a C compiler has been written.

Standard Library And Run

With time old programming languages become obsolete while new programming languages are launched, but they never gain traction. A common question amongst beginners is the programming language they should invest learning in, that is in demand, stable outlook, and plenty of jobs. Red is a programming language originally designed to overcome limitations by the language Rebol. Introduced in 2011 and influenced by languages like Rebol, Lua and Scala, Red is useful for both high and low-level programming. Hack is a programming language for the HipHop Virtual Machine as a dialect of PHP. Created by Facebook in 2014, Hack allows for programmers to use both static and dynamic typing , which gives them flexibility in their coding.

This scripting language is aimed for Internet use and is looked upon as being a combination of Haskell and Java. Developed by Alan Eliasen and named after Professor John Frink, a popular fictional character. It is based on the Java Virtual Machine and focuses on science and engineering. Its striking feature is that it tracks the units of measure through all the calculations that enables quantities to contain their units of measurement. Mobile applications are increasingly written in Swift or Kotlin. Larger companies tend to develop their internal software applications using C# or Java and their Web applications using PHP.