Introduction To Programming Languages programing language

It is an imperative and procedural programming language that was designed as a scripting language. Designed by Tim Long in 1992, ICI is a general purpose interpreted computer programming language. It supports dynamic typing, flexible data types and other language constructs similar to C. Master of Science in Computer Science Align program at Northeastern can help you develop expertise and fluency with the popular programming languages that align with your skills and interests. Swift can only be used on newer versions of iOS 7 and will not work with older applications.

  • Off-side rule languages designate blocks of code based on their indentation.
  • It is used by developers to perform tasks such as translation, automatic summarization, Named Entity Recognition , relationship extraction, and topic segmentation.
  • JavaScript is one of the best coding language to learn which is relatively simple to learn.
  • TypeScript was named “most adopted tech” in the 2021 State of JavaScript Survey.
  • McCarthy started developing the idea for Lisp during the summer of 1956 while working on the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.
  • R does not have the strict programming guidelines of older and more established languages.

However, with so many programming languages out there, figuring out where to start can be intimidating. Imperative languages convey information to computers through serial orders and large amounts of detail. They might also fall under other classifications as multiparadigm programming languages. Declarative languages tell a computer what needs to be done without including instructions for how to complete the task. This type of language can be classified as a logic programming or functional language, as they all help a computer to solve problems in programming. Logic programming languages add restrictions to statements made by developers that cause the computer to consider the possible outcomes of different actions.


Some programmers are able to build a career out of being an expert in one language, but many programmers learn new languages frequently, Gorton says. It’s not uncommon for a professional programmer to be fluent in three or four different languages, he adds. C++ has complex syntax and an abundance of features that can make it complicated for new programmers. C++ also does not support run-time checking, which is a method of detecting errors or defects while software is running.

But, you can also use Ruby for web scraping, command-line tools, automation, data processing, and more. One of the other reasons we like Swift as an advanced language for new programmers is the Swift Playgrounds app, which provides an enjoyable learning experience for coding. Swift’s benchmarks on Apple hardware tend to impress, with noticeably improved speed over apps developed in another language. Its basic syntax and libraries are structured in a way that makes sense, purposely deviating from unnecessary confusion as much as technically possible in some areas. Python is another general-purpose language and is recommended for beginners. You can learn to script basic functionality on your first day when following a good tutorial.

It is one of the most used programming languages for the .NET framework. Anders Hejlsberg, the creator of C#, says the language is more like C++ than Java. Javascript is the most popular programming language in the world and is in high demand among various organizations. It is a pure object-oriented programming language having a prototype-based object model.

Iterative Languages

It is small in size and can be executed on small portable virtual machines. It is an object-oriented prototype-based computer programming language. NewtonScript is used to write programs for Apple Newton and is largely influenced by Self. It is a multi-paradigm programming language, which offers object-oriented and functional programming features. It is a powerful multi-paradigm software development environment whose core language is POP-11.

Declarative Languages

An assembly language is not so much a paradigm as a direct model of an underlying machine architecture. By purpose, programming languages might be considered general purpose, system programming languages, scripting languages, domain-specific languages, or concurrent/distributed languages . Some general purpose languages were designed largely with educational goals. A program written in a low-level language can be made to run very quickly, with a small memory footprint. An equivalent program in a high-level language can be less efficient and use more memory.

It is extensible because it allows the users to define their own XML elements. It supports the sharing of structured data over the Internet and the encoding and serializing of data. XPath is the XML Path Language that is used to select nodes from an XML document. Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations is an XML-based language that is used for the transformation of XML documents into human-readable formats.